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      1. RIGOL Technologies (test equipment) - RF Cafe
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        About RF Cafe

        Kirt Blattenberger - RF Cafe Webmaster

        Copyright: 1996 - 2024
            Kirt Blattenberger,

            BSEE - KB3UON

        RF Cafe began life in 1996 as "RF Tools" in an AOL screen name web space totaling 2 MB. Its primary purpose was to provide me with ready access to commonly needed formulas and reference material while performing my work as an RF system and circuit design engineer. The World Wide Web (Internet) was largely an unknown entity at the time and bandwidth was a scarce commodity. Dial-up modems blazed along at 14.4 kbps while typing up your telephone line, and a nice lady's voice announced "You've Got Mail" when a new message arrived...

        All trademarks, copyrights, patents, and other rights of ownership to images and text used on the RF Cafe website are hereby acknowledged.

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          Electronics World articles Popular Electronics articles QST articles Radio & TV News articles Radio-Craft articles Radio-Electronics articles Short Wave Craft articles Wireless World articles Google Search of RF Cafe website Sitemap Electronics Equations Mathematics Equations Equations physics Manufacturers & distributors Engineer Jobs LinkedIn Crosswords Engineering Humor Kirt's Cogitations RF Engineering Quizzes Notable Quotes App Notes Calculators Education Engineering magazine articles Engineering software Engineering smorgasbord RF Cafe Archives RF Symbols for Visio - Word Advertising RF Cafe Homepage Thank you for visiting RF Cafe!
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              "Building a Heathkit was the electronics equivalent of painting a Rembrandt by the numbers." - Robert Lucky

              Today in Science History

              Tech Industry Headlines

              Tech Industry Headlines - RF Cafe- Archive -

              ? Studies Show "Win-Win" for 12 GHz Band

              ? mm-Wave 5G is 16x Faster Than Sub-6 GHz 5G

              ? Very High Speed Club Special Event Active During May {not the "very high" speed club - that's a doper group ;-)}

              ? Multi-Node Quantum Network on Horizon

              ? CEOs Skeptical of Social Media Marketing

              ? Microwaves & RF Magazine Turns 60! (tempus fugit!)

              ? 1st-Time Ham Exam Applicants Must Obtain FCC Registration Number

              ? US Cellular Pushes mmWave's Limits w/GByte Speeds over 7 km

              ? Marconi Winner Accused of Airing Satanic Music

              Civilian Radio Jobs Wanted - Free Want-Ad Service

              Civilian Radio Jobs Wanted - Free Want-Ad Service, May 1946, Radio-Craft - RF CafeWhile everyone greatly welcomed the ending of World War II, in its wake was a huge number of people that would be in need of jobs. Many thousands of men had been trained in the field of electronics maintenance and hope to exploit those skills in doing service work in radio, television, industrial controls, and other related fields. Other planned to go into sales, or a combination of both. Some had been in the business prior to either volunteering or getting drafted into the war, but not all could expect to simply pick up where they had left off. In order to assist the country's servicemen in transitioning into civilian life, Radio-Craft magazine provided a free service where individuals could list their qualifications, along with contact information - effectively an abbreviated resume posting venue...

              New for 2021! RF & Electronics Stencils for Visio

              RF & Electronics stencils for Visio r4 - RF CafeWith more than 1000 custom-built stencils, this has got to be the most comprehensive set of Visio Stencils available for RF, analog, and digital system and schematic drawings! Every object has been built to fit proportionally on the provided A-, B- and C-size drawing page templates (or can use your own). Stencils are provided for equipment racks and test equipment, system block diagrams, conceptual drawings, and schematics. Unlike previous versions, these are NOT Stencils, but instead are all contained on tabbed pages within a single Visio document. That puts everything in front of you in its full glory. Just copy and paste what you need on your drawing. The file format is XML so everything plays nicely with Visio 2013 and later...

              The Electrical Circuit Diagram

              The Electrical Circuit Diagram, Basic Navy Training Courses, NAVPERS 10622, Chapter 4 - RF CafeWhile listening to the radio the other day, I heard a guy who is very technically astute and is a Ham radio operator pronounce the word "schematic" as "skem-E'-at-ik." He wasn't just joking because he kept saying it that way throughout the show. It came to mind while posting this chapter entitled, "The Electrical Circuit Diagram," and I thought you might appreciate it (especially if you also routinely mispronounce the word). But I digress... The U.S. Navy over the years has produced a number of series of training courses for electricity, communications, mechanics, navigation, etc., that are held in high regard by the military and private industry. Graduates of the courses who served a term of enlistment performing equipment maintenance have always been preferred by employers looking for high quality technicians...

              LadyBug - Here We Grow (and Move) Again!

              LadyBug - Here We Grow (and Move) Again! - RF CafeExciting things are happening at LadyBug Technologies and we want to share some important news with you. Loyalty from customers like you has fueled continued growth, making a move to a larger facility necessary. This is our third move in response to consistent growth since our inception. With this move, we double our space, allowing additional product design engineers and manufacturing employees. One of the main reasons for our expansion is the demand for new products. We are adding 2 members to our engineering team at the time of the move and plan to add additional personnel shortly thereafter. We plan to deliver new products at a significantly faster pace. This includes our new small form factor measurement system with wide bandwidth pulse measurement capability. This is just one of many exciting developments. Look for additional news about us in the future...

              Congress to Designate National Amateur Radio Operators Day

              Congress to Designate National Amateur Radio Operators Day - RF Cafe"The U.S. Congress is reportedly taking steps to officially recognize the important contributions made by amateur radio operators. According to an article on the website of the ARRL, Congresswoman Debbie Lesko (AZ) has introduced a bipartisan resolution to designate April 18, 2022 as National Amateur Radio Operators Day. April 18th is the anniversary of the founding of the International Amateur Radio Union (IARU) which was established in 1925. The resolution cites the Amateur Radio Emergency Service for providing 'invaluable emergency communications services following recent natural disasters, including, but not limited to, helping coordinate disaster relief efforts following Hurricanes Katrina, Wilma, and Maria and other extreme weather disasters.' Lesko had introduced a similar bill last year..."

              Many Thanks to Aegis Power Systems for Their Continued Support!

              Aegis Power Systems - RF CafeAegis Power Systems is a leading supplier of AC-DC and DC-DC power supplies for custom and special applications. Aegis has been designing and building highly reliable custom power supplies since 1995. They offer a complete line of switch mode power supplies and power converters for a variety of markets including defense, industrial, aircraft, VME, and telecom. Supports military, aircraft, EV, telecom, and embedded computing applications. Design and manufacture of custom power supply solutions to meet each customer's exacting specifications. Please visit Aegis Power Systems today.

              Kirt's Cogitations #215: Disruptive Disruptions

              Kirt's Cogitations #215: Disruptive Disruptions"Disruptive" is the early 21st century buzzword. Merely placing the adjective in the vicinity of any noun or phrase elevates the topic to a level reserved for only the most outside-of-the-box, ground-breaking, awe-inspiring events. Any technology described as disruptive, that is to say, as a "disruptive technology," is certain to cause a hush to fall across the room where it is introduced. Captains of industry are humbled at the announcement. Kings kneel in the presence of said disruptiveness. No amount of adulation, worship, exaltation and praise is sufficient to acknowledge its progenitor(s). Seriously, though, although the term "disruptive technology" is grossly overused, it is an accurate description of a technology that represents a concept so unique that it literally changes the direction of an industry. Consider these examples in history...

              FM Carrier Stabilization

              FM Carrier Stabilization, May 1946, Radio-Craft - RF CafeHere is another instance of an article which, if it had been in an April magazine issue, you might be justified in thinking it might be a gag. "FM Carrier Stabilization," a 1946 Radio-Craft feature, centers around the use of a General Electric (GE) GL?2H21 "Phasitron" vacuum tube. Be assured that it is a real component, developed to address the difficulties in achieving frequency modulation (FM) requirements set forth by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) at what was really the dawn of the FM commercial broadcast radio era. Only a little over a decade had passed since Major Armstrong announced his broadband FM invention, and radio stations were planning to adopt the superior (to AM) form of broadcasting at a rapid rate, following the end of World War II. The Phasitron was GE's solution to the problem of maintaining the average...

              Broadest Frequency Range Detected with Quantum Receiver

              Broadest Frequency Range Detected with Quantum Receiver - RF Cafe"A new quantum sensor can analyze the full spectrum of radio-frequency and real-world signals, unleashing new potential for soldier communications, spectrum awareness, and electronic warfare. Army researchers built the quantum sensor, which can sample the radio-frequency spectrum - from zero frequency up to 20 GHz - and detect AM and FM radio, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi, and other communication signals. HOW IT WORKS The Rydberg sensor uses laser beams to create highly excited Rydberg atoms directly above a microwave circuit to boost and home in on the portion of the spectrum being measured. The Rydberg atoms are sensitive to the circuit's voltage, enabling..."

              The River Sniffer

              Carl and Jerry, The River Sniffer, July 1962 Popular Electronics - RF CafeIn "The River Sniffer," our intrepid sleuthing heroes Carl and Jerry, the creation of John T. Frye, apply their electronics prowess and lessons remembered from chemistry class at Parvoo University in order to catch polluters who are dumping chemicals into the river where they like to fish. I always like being reminded of something long forgotten when reading an article from vintage magazines like this 1962 issue of Popular Electronics, and this one did not disappoint. Do you recall what 'pH' stands for as a measure acidity or alkalinity? It means 'potential Hydrogen ion concentration.' Don't thank me if it jogged your memory as well - thank Carl and Jerry...

              RF Cascade Workbook 2018

              RF Cascade Workbook 2018 Is Available Now! - RF CafeRF Cascade Workbook 2018 is the next phase in the evolution of RF Cafe's long-running series, RF Cascade Workbook. Chances are you have never used a spreadsheet quite like this (click here for screen capture). It is a full-featured RF system cascade parameter and frequency planner that includes filters and mixers for a mere $45. Built in MS Excel, using RF Cascade Workbook 2018 is a cinch and the format is entirely customizable. It is significantly easier and faster than using a multi-thousand dollar simulator when a high level system analysis is all that is needed. An intro video takes you through the main features...

              Antenova's Free Tool to Optimise PCB Antenna Placement

              Antenova Offers Free Tool to Optimise Antenna Placement on a PCB - RF CafeAntenova Ltd, the UK-based manufacturer of antennas and RF antenna modules for M2M and the Internet of Things, has created a new software tool to help designers place antennas in a wireless design. The tool displays the optimum position for embedded antennas on the PCB, depending upon the dimensions of the PCB and the specifications of the antennas. It places each individual antenna on the PCB in the best location for signal strength. Antenova has developed this tool to assist product designers who do not have access to antenna skills in-house. The tool should help designers to place the antenna in the best position early in the design process and achieve a working wireless design more easily. It can be used for one single antenna, or up to three antennas...

              IEEE Webinar: "RF Exposure in the Time of Conspiracies" on May 12th

              Break out the tinfoil hats and get set to attend the IEEE Committee on Man and Radiation (COMAR) webinar entitled, "RF Exposure in the Time of Conspiracies." The 1-hour event is set to get under way at 1800 UTC on Wednesday, May 12. COMAR is a group of experts on health and safety issues related to electromagnetic fields, from power line through microwave frequency ranges. Its primary focus is on biological effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation. "The real idea behind the webinar is to highlight some of the news articles, comments, etc. that purport to declare the hazardous nature of exposure to weak RF fields, such as those posed by new 5G wireless communications base stations, explain how they are not scientifically based and, possibly, some ideas on how to better communicate what we really know about potential health effects," said COMAR chair Ric Tell, K5UJU.

              Please Visit NorthEast RF's Website in Appreciation of Their Support

              NorthEast RF - RF CafeNorthEast RF's comprehensive antenna testing services include linear | circular polarized antenna measurements and OTA cellular device pre-compliance. Up to 18" diameter and <10 kg weight. Antennas can be rapidly evaluated and optimized using our fast near field spherical system. Test results supplied in data file with pattern viewer software. A picture of the test configuration is included to help aligned axis. Our selection of human head and hand phantoms are ideal for verification of body worn devices. Turnaround time is usually 3-days.

              Radio Theme Crossword Puzzle for May 9th

              Radio Theme Crossword Puzzle for May 9th, 2021 - RF CafeThis Radio Theme Crossword Puzzle for May 9th has many words and clues related to RF, microwave, and mm-wave engineering, optics, mathematics, chemistry, physics, and other technical subjects. Also, it contains at least six (6) instances of this puzzle's theme word. As always, this crossword contains no names of politicians, mountain ranges, exotic foods or plants, movie stars, or anything of the sort unless it/he/she is related to this puzzle's technology theme (e.g., Reginald Denny or the Tunguska event in Siberia). The technically inclined cruciverbalists amongst us will appreciate the effort. Enjoy!

              Please Visit Empower RF's Website in Appreciation of Their Support

              Empower RF Systems - RF CafeEmpower RF Systems is a global leader in power amplifier solutions. Empower RF Systems is an established and technologically superior supplier of high power solid state RF & microwave amplifiers. Our offerings include modules, intelligent rack-mount amplifiers, and multi-function RF Power Amplifier solutions to 6 GHz in broadband and band specific designs. Output power combinations range from tens of watts to multi-kilowatts. Unprecedented size, weight and power reduction of our amplifiers is superior to anything in the market at similar frequencies and power levels.

              RCA Victor Models 54Bx Radio Data Sheet

              RCA Victor Models 54B1, 54B-N, 54B2, 54B3 Radio Data Sheet 335, May 1946, Radio-Craft - RF CafeSometimes finding an existing instance of one of the vintage radios is difficult or impossible. The RCA Victor Model 54Bx portables are an exception. Plenty can be found for purchase on eBay as this is written, as was a 54B1, 54B3, and a 54B4. I did a capture of some of the listing images for a Model 54B2, and had Archive.org story a copy for once the eBay site deletes it. In the internal photos, all four miniature vacuum tubes (3S4, 1S5, 1R5, 1T4) can be clearly seen. Note also in the photos you can see where, per the alignment procedure, rubber bands have been place around the tubes in order to keep them from moving. The extremely cramped space required particular attention to the routing of interconnect wires...

              Electronic Assembly Technician Needed by Triad RF Systems

              Electronic Assembly Technician Needed by Triad RF Systems - RF CafeTriad RF Systems is a fast-growing leader in the design and manufacture of RF power amplifiers and radio systems. We are looking for an experienced Electronic Assembly Technician to support our growth. This position will work in our Assembly Team under the direction of our Production Manager. Required skills and qualifications include assembles electronic components, assemblies, subassemblies, RF modules and systems with work orders and visual work instruction as directed by the Production Manager. Performs mechanical assembly operations while building electronic assemblies using standard measuring tools and techniques, performs electronic assembly operations such as wire termination, and installation...

              Sangamo Electric Company

              Sangamo Electric Company, May 1950 Radio & Television News - RF CafeRemember the Sunday comics feature for kids where there was a picture drawn with things wrong in it, and you had to find them all? This 1950 advertisement for the Sangamo Electric Company's line of capacitors, which appeared in Radio & Television News magazine, could server as a modern-day version for the Cancel Culture "woke" crowd that believes it has a duty to criticize and impugn everything it happens to fear, not like, or not understand. My list is at the bottom of the page if you want to compare it to yours. On other Sangamo ad post pages I have provided a bit of research on the background of "Samgamo" to try to determine whether the use of Native Americans (aka "indians" at the time) was based on a local tribe. No link has ever been found. Below the ad are a few of the items discovered...

              Rainy Day Amusements, 1982 Old Farmer's Almanac

              Rainy Day Amusements, 1982 Old Farmer's Almanac - RF CafeThe "Rainy Day Amusements" feature was not usually a mathematical challenge; for that, see the "Old & New Mathematical Puzzles" section. Some years they were worthwhile, end others not so much so. 1982 was a pretty good year for Rainy Day Amusements, so they are included here. Each autumn I used to anxiously await the appearance of the newest edition of The Old Farmer's Almanac on the store shelf, and such was the case with this 1982 issue. It is not that I was/am an avid farmer, just that I enjoy reading the anecdotes, tales, and interesting historical tidbits included amongst the pages along with tables of high and low tides, moon and sun rising and setting times...

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